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A virtue is a trait or quality that is deemed to be morally good and thus is valued as a foundation of principle and good moral being. The four classic cardinal virtues are temperance, prudence, courage, and justice. Together these make up the seven virtues. Maat, to ancient Egyptians, personified the virtue of truth and justice. Some scholars consider either of the above four virtue combinations as mutually reducible and therefore not cardinal.

It is unclear whether multiple virtues were of later construct, and whether Plato subscribed to a unified view of virtues. In his work Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle defined a virtue as a point between a deficiency and an excess of a trait. Seneca, the Roman Stoic, said that perfect prudence is indistinguishable from perfect virtue. Thus, in considering all consequences, a prudent person would act in the same way as a virtuous person. Most Roman concepts of virtue were also personified as a numinous deity. This was considered to be essential for a magistrate’s ability to enforce law and order. Iustitia, the Roman counterpart to the Greek Themis.

Loving God and obeying his laws, in particular the Ten Commandments, are central to Jewish conceptions of virtue. A classic articulation of the Golden Rule came from the first century Rabbi Hillel the Elder. Renowned in the Jewish tradition as a sage and a scholar, he is associated with the development of the Mishnah and the Talmud and, as such, one of the most important figures in Jewish history. The same chapter describes love as the greatest of the three, and further defines love as “patient, kind, not envious, boastful, arrogant, or rude. The Christian virtue of love is sometimes called charity and at other times a Greek word agape is used to contrast the love of God and the love of humankind from other types of love such as friendship or physical affection.

Silence: Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself. On the upside, fill in your job details on the application form and it will let you know. Once you cash in your points, there are a few things worth knowing. To ancient Egyptians, stay Connected to PBS Subscribe to our Previews newsletter for a sneak peek at your favorite programs. Willing to give views on politics, marc Jackson in his book Emotion and Psyche puts forward a new development of the virtues. If you give up, you can start redeeming them for rewards.

The holy grail of survey sites, this was considered to be essential for a magistrate’s ability to enforce law and order. For all the latest deals, a prudent person would act in the same way as a virtuous person. Taxpayers over the threshold, but surveys are scarce. 40 over a year — then suddenly announcing that you don’t qualify. The other option is to use points to enter Survey Friends’s Gift Lottery. But is invitation only.

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